Moving To Australia On A Global Talent Visa

Matthew Marcarian   |   2 Nov 2023   |   8 min read

Exceptionally talented individuals with the capacity to raise Australia’s standing in their field may be eligible for a Global Talent Visa. This Visa is a permanent residency Visa that offers a migration pathway to individuals who can bring exceptional skills into Australia.

Because the Global Talent Visa is not a temporary visa, the temporary resident tax concessions are not available and you will be taxed just like any other Australian citizen moving home to Australia.

As international tax specialists in Australia we are often asked by individuals moving to Australia on a Global Talent Visas, what the Australian tax implications of making this move are in relation to the assets back in their home country.

The tax implications of making this move will depend on the type of assets you have back home.

Below is an overview of what you can expect.

Moving To Australia With No Assets Other Than A Bank Account

When you move to Australia with no assets except the cash in your bank account, the tax consequences of holding onto your foreign assets are limited to foreign exchange (forex) issues. Since foreign currency is considered a taxable asset, Australia will tax realised exchange gains and will allow a deduction for realised exchange losses. 

This means that money sitting in a bank account with fluctuating values will have no tax consequence. However, if you spend or transfer that money, including bringing it into Australia at a later date, then you trigger a forex realisation event.

If the value of your qualifying forex accounts is less than AUD $250,000 then you can make an election (known as the Limited Balance exemption) which effectively allows an exemption so that you can disregard any forex gains or losses that might arise on the accounts. This is a simplicity measure for taxpayers who are considered to have low balances of foreign currency. The objective is to lower tax compliance costs. People moving to Australia should take advice on the effect of these rules on their foreign savings.

Moving To Australia With A Main Residence In Your Home Country

While an Australian resident is eligible for an exemption from capital gains tax on their main residence, it is unlikely that this exemption will apply to you. This is because you were not an Australian resident while you were living in your property, in your home country.

Once you are living in Australia the overseas property becomes a property that is not your main residence. This applies whether you rent the property out or not.

If you rent your former residence out it becomes an investment property. The rental income is taxable and the expenses associated with generating that rental income are tax deductible. This includes interest on any mortgage taken out to purchase or renovate the property, any local rates, repairs, and other costs. Travel costs incurred to inspect or repair the property are specifically precluded as an eligible deduction. If you pay income tax on the rental income overseas, then you will be able to apply that as a foreign tax credit in your Australian tax return. This way the Australian tax paid on this rental income is limited to any difference between the Australian tax assessed and the tax paid overseas.

If you don’t rent out your former residence (or otherwise earn income relating to the property), then there is no income to declare, and no ability to claim deductions relating to the cost of owning this property.

When you sell the property you will be subject to CGT. The CGT will be calculated on the difference between the value the property sells for and the value of the property at the time you moved to Australia.

Moving To Australia With Investments

If you hold assets in your country of origin, then you will be required to report any assessable income earned from those assets, as well as any capital gains or losses generated on the disposal of those assets.

Certain types of income, such as interest, royalties, and dividends, are typically covered by Double Tax Agreements (DTAs) in a way which limits the amount of tax that the country of origin can impose. This means it is important to advise your bank and investment managers when you become an Australian resident so that they can ensure the correct foreign tax rate is applied at the source.

Regardless of the tax rules in the country of origin, as an Australian tax resident you will be required to report income from all sources in your Australian tax return.

General Tax Information You Should Be Aware Of When Moving To Australia On A Global Talent Visa

It is important to keep in mind that moving to Australia on a permanent basis will mean you become an Australian tax resident.

For tax purposes this means you will need to declare your worldwide income in your Australian tax return, regardless of where the income is earned and whether the income is brought to Australia or stays in an overseas bank account.

All foreign investment income, including interest, dividends and foreign stock plans, are assessable in Australia, whether or not they are assessable in another country.

The foreign income must be reported in the relevant Australian tax year in which it was earned. This may be different to the tax year relating to foreign country in which the investment income was earned.

In general you will be able to offset the tax payable in Australia with any taxes already paid in the country of origin.

Also be aware that Australia has complicated rules if you have interests in overseas companies or trusts, even if you did not set up the relevant companies or trusts or even if they are just ‘family companies’ or ‘family trusts’.

Capital Gains Tax

Australia has a Capital Gains Tax regime. This means you may be required to pay capital gains tax on any assets that you retain in your country of origins.

CGT is assessed at the same rate as your marginal tax rate, however there is a 50% Discount on the value that is assessed on assets that have been owned for at least 12 months after becoming an Australian resident.

CGT discount example:

You purchase a property in 2020 for $500,000.

In 2024 you sell the property for $1,000,000.

This gives you a net capital gain of $500,000.

Instead of paying tax on the full $500,000 gain, tax is only applicable on 50% of the total gain, which means you only pay tax on $250,000.

Deemed Acquisition

At the time that you move to Australia, any assets that you retain overseas are considered to have been acquired for their market value on the day you arrive. This valuation will become their cost base for capital gains tax purposes in Australia.

You are also deemed to have acquired these assets on the date that you become an Australian resident. This ensures that any fluctuations in value between the original date of acquisition and your move to Australia, are ignored for CGT calculations. It also means that you need to continue to own your assets for at least 12 months from the date you move to Australia in order to access the 50% capital gains tax discount.

Summary

As an Australian tax resident you will be required to lodge an annual income tax return in which you must report:

  • Income from your worldwide source
  • Capital gains or losses on all assets held, regardless of the country in which they are held
  • Any foreign tax paid, which may be applied as a credit to reduce the amount of Australian tax assessed on foreign earnings

When you move to Australia your assets will be deemed to be acquired at the market value on the date you become an Australian resident.    

As everyone’s situation is unique, and tax laws are frequently updated, it is important to obtain up to date advice for your specific situation. This will ensure that specific factors that may impact your situation differently are also included in the advice, as well as ensuring you are getting the most up to date information.

eBook: Key Items A Global Talent Visa Holder Should Know When Moving To Australia

If you are moving to Australia on a Global Talent Visa you are likely to become an Australian tax resident. 

This eBook covers the 5 common tax concerns that those moving to Australia on a Global Talent Visa have including:

  1. When do I become a tax resident?
  1. Keeping foreign assets when moving to Australia.
  1. Foreign assets including foreign currencies, trusts, companies or retirement funds and pension loans.
  1. Selling your foreign main residence after moving.
  1. Using your foreign bank accounts.

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Managing Dual Tax Residency as an Expat

Daniel Wilkie   |   11 Jul 2023   |   10 min read

When you live and work solely in one country, tax residency is straightforward. However, if you are living away from your home country or living between multiple countries, then determining tax residency is complicated.

One of the difficulties in determining tax residency is that the laws applied to residency differ in each country. This means you may simultaneously meet the residency requirements in multiple countries within a given tax period. Alternatively, if you live a particularly transitory life, it may be difficult to identify primary residency.

Note that tax residency is different to citizenship or visa residency. This article discusses what you need to know about tax residency.

Why Residency Matters

As each country has their own rules for taxation, it is important to know which country has taxation rights over you as an individual resident. This is why residency is such a foundational concept.

Being a tax resident of multiple countries has potential implications on how your worldwide income is taxed. Generally, your country of residence has primary taxing rights over your income. It also raises double taxation concerns, with competing tax jurisdictions aiming to potentially tax the same income. As countries sometimes tax the same income, a dual tax resident could face significant tax consequences. For this reason, tax treaties between countries exist to help resolve conflicting taxation rights, including determining tax residency.

As this can be a particularly complex issue it is important to ensure that you consult with qualified tax professionals who are familiar with the tax laws of each country. The following information provides a general overview of the potential tax consequences of being a tax resident in multiple countries.

Taxation Rights

Once residency is determined, your country of residence will have the primary taxing rights. Income that is taxable from other sources will be taxed as income earned by a non-resident.

Double Tax Agreements (DTAs) between countries cover a range of factors to help mitigate double taxation issues, including who has primary taxing rights of specific types of income and can include limitations on the taxing rights of the country where the taxpayer is a non-resident.

For countries that tax on a territorial basis, the country of residence might only legislate taxation over income derived from the country of residence, or foreign income that is remitted into the country.

However, countries that tax on a worldwide basis assess all income earned by the individual, regardless of the source of income.

In either case, DTAs, and other tax relief provisions help alleviate the impact of being taxed in multiple countries. This typically means that when you pay foreign tax on foreign sourced income, your country of residence will count this tax towards the tax they assess on this income.

Tax Residency

As each country has its own rules for determining residency, your first step is working out whether you are a resident in each country that you are connected to. To give an example of how this works we consider the tax residency rules of Australia, Singapore, the USA and the UK.

Tax Residency In Australia

How Residency Is Determined

There are a number of tests used to determine residency in Australia, which are essentially designed to determine whether Australia is your home. This means that you are an Australian tax resident if you reside in Australia, or intend to reside in Australia for a significant period of time, and you have a permanent home there.

If you are an Australian permanent resident who is living and working overseas on a temporary basis, you may still be considered a tax resident of  Australia. If you have not established a permanent place of abode outside Australia, then your Australian tax residency will continue. A permanent place of abode is a place where you live and consider your home. This means you may still be considered an Australian tax resident even if you are not physically present in Australia for a given tax year. Individuals who are not Australian citizens may also remain Australian tax residents if they travel overseas for short periods of time, while maintaining their home in Australia.

In an income tax year where you become or cease being a resident you will be considered a part-year tax resident.

Income Taxes as a Resident

Australian tax residents are assessed on worldwide income. This includes all forms of income including capital gains.

Tax Residency In Singapore

How Residency Is Determined

In Singapore you are a tax resident when you are physically present in Singapore for at least 183 days in a calendar year.

Income Taxes as a Resident

Singapore tax residents are typically only required to pay tax on Singapore sourced income, or foreign income that is brought into Singapore. Singapore does not tax capital gains.

Tax Residency In The USA

How Residency Is Determined

In the USA, all US citizens and dual citizens are required to lodge a tax return to declare their worldwide income, regardless of their tax residency.

Non-citizens are tax residents if they hold a Green Card that legally allows permanent residency.

Tax residency is determined by a physical presence test. This test requires physical presence in the USA for at least 31 days in the relevant calendar year, after being present for a specific number of days totalling at least 183 days over the preceding two years.

Income Taxes as a Resident

Both citizens and tax residents of the USA are taxed on their worldwide income. Citizens are taxed on worldwide income even if they no longer reside in the US and do not meet the residency test. There are some foreign earning exclusions for individuals who meet specific requirements.

Tax Residency In The UK

How Residency Is Determined

In the UK you are a tax resident under the Statutory Residence Test. This test considers a range of factors including the number of days you are present in the UK, your connections to the country, and other relevant criteria.

The UK has an automatic overseas test. This means if you spend less than 16 days in the UK (or less than 46 days if you have not been a UK resident for the previous 3 tax years), or you are working abroad full-time and spend less than 91 days in the UK, then you are a non-resident.

There are three automatic resident tests:

  1. You are present in the UK for at least 183 days.
  2. Your only home is in the UK for at least 91 days in a row, and you visited or stayed for at least 30 days in the tax year.
  3.  You worked full time in the UK for any period of 365 days and at least one of those days falls in the tax year you’re checking.

Where you do not meet either automatic test the “sufficient ties test” will determine if you are a resident. This test considers your UK connections, including family, accommodation, work, and physical presence, over a number of years.

Income Taxes as a Resident

UK tax residents are taxed on their worldwide income. However, non-UK sourced income may be exempt from UK taxation in certain circumstances.

Dual Residency

As can be seen from the various residency tests of just these four countries, there is variety in how residency is determined and the tax implications this could lead to. Given the variation in tests, you could easily be considered a resident of multiple countries over a single tax year.

When an individual is a tax resident in multiple countries the next step is to determine if there are tie breaker rules contained in a DTA. These rules provide guidance on determining an individual’s primary place of residence.

Residency Tie Breaker Rules

Most countries adopt the Mutual Agreement Procedure, specifically Article 4 of the OECD Model Tax Convention, to resolve dual residence situations. Accordingly, there is a fairly standard set of tie breaker rules across various DTAs. These tiebreaker rules are outlined as follows:

  1. Permanent Home – Where you have a permanent home in one country but not the other, you will be a resident of the country where your home is located.
  2. Centre of Vital Interests – The country in which you have closer personal and economic connections will be your country of residence. This may include family and personal ties, social and economic activities such as work and club memberships, and where you keep your main assets.
  3. Habitual Above – Where neither of the previous tests assist, the country where you regularly abide or reside in will be your country of residence.
  4. Nationality – Where none of the previous tests assist you will be a resident of the country in which you are a national.

In most cases an individual will be able to determine their residence using one of these tie breaker rules.

When it comes to Australia, Singapore, the USA and the UK, most of these countries adopt comprehensive DTAs between one another, in which Article 4 of the OECD Model Tax Convention is essentially utilised. This includes the DTAs between the following countries:

  • Australia and Singapore
  • Australia and the USA
  • Australia and the UK
  • Singapore and the UK       
  • The UK and the USA

Notably, there is no DTA between Singapore and the USA. This means that dual residents of Singapore and the USA will need to rely on the taxation rules and access to tax relief options in each country in order to avoid double taxation.

Dual Tax Residents

In very rare cases an individual may have sufficient ties to multiple countries in which they are either not a citizen, or in which they hold dual citizenship, leading to a situation whereby they may not be able to effectively use tie breaker residency rules to accurately determine their country of residence. This creates a complex situation wherein no country has clear priority for determining tax residency and a decision regarding residency is subjective.

This situation could theoretically lead to an individual being subject to taxes being assessed on their worldwide income in multiple tax jurisdictions. The Mutual Agreement Procedure contained in some DTAs enables a taxpayer to request the competent authority in one country to engage with their counterparts in another country to resolve double taxation.

Managing Dual Tax Residency

In summary, determining residency is an important factor because it determines which tax jurisdiction has primary taxation rights.

DTAs exist to help mitigate the risk of double taxation by providing tie breaker rules in determining residency and placing restrictions or limitations on taxation rights over certain types of income, as well as providing tax relief through the recognition of foreign tax credits.

Where no DTA exists, or where an individual’s residency cannot be determined, other provisions are required to mitigate the impact of double taxation. 

Tax residency can be a very complex area and it is recommended you seek specialist international tax advice for your particular situation. 

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

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Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

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Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

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Determining Corporate Residency

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What You Need to Know if You Have a Trust and are Moving Abroad

John Marcarian   |   3 Apr 2023   |   8 min read

Many private clients heading to abroad may already have a trust in their home country or a 3rd Country.

Historically trusts have been attractive vehicles because they offer people the potential of protecting their wealth from external attacks, but it can also help lower the burden of taxation on a family group.

For those who do not have a trust as yet but who are considering establishing a trust, a great deal of thought and planning needs to go into it.

We make sure our clients understand the four golden rules of setting up a trust:

  1. Ensure the bank or financial advisory firm managing your money does not own the trustee company that will be the trustee of your trust. This prevents a conflict of interest.
  2. Understand how you can unwind the trust arrangement.
  3. Recognise that long-term solutions require tax contingency planning before you sign on the dotted line. As your residency can change, so can your tax position.
  4. Make sure you understand how you can access trust income and/or capital to pay taxes that may become due on the gains of the trust.

Before delving into some further issues associated with trust management, I will cover just a few central points about how trusts work for those who may not have worked with trusts.

How Trusts Work

A trust is an arrangement whereby a trustee has a fiduciary obligation to deal with property over which they have control for the benefit of one or more beneficiaries who are able to enforce such an obligation.

Beneficiaries may be individuals, corporations, or indeed other trusts (such as a charitable trust).

All trusts have a trust deed. 

At a high level, this is a document that outlines the rules that the trustee must follow in relation to the property they control.

Common objectives for utilising trusts are to protect assets and ensure that beneficiaries are deable to benefit financially from the trust in a manner that suits the family group and in accordance with the wishes of the settlor of the trust.

The discretionary trust is the most common trust used by business owners and investors. 

They are generally set up to hold family and/or business assets for the benefit of providing asset protection and tax-planning benefits for family members.

The Trust Deed: Its Importance

The trust deed is the most important document of a trust as it establishes and defines terms and conditions upon which the trust must be operated and managed.

More specifically, the trust deed sets out the beneficiaries of the trust, as well as the end date of the trust and the conditions upon which the trustee holds the property for the beneficiaries.

Actions undertaken outside the provisions set out in the trust deed can be deemed by a court of appropriate jurisdiction to be null and void. 

The implications of an action being null, and void can reach further than the act simply being treated as if it did not occur.

An invalid act of a trustee can result in unwanted taxation implications for the trustee, and a breach of the trustee’s duties can lead to personal liability for damages or alternatively unwanted consequences for beneficiaries.

The best approach in dealing with trust management and planning is to treat every trust deed as unique and therefore refer to the provisions in the deed prior to taking any action.

How Are Trusts Taxed?

While a trust is regarded as a taxpayer in some countries (e.g., Australia), in other countries this is not the case. 

In some countries, the beneficiary is taxed on gains accruing in the trust; in others, it is the original settlor who suffers the tax burden.

Changing Residency With a Trust

One aspect of trust management and planning to get right when you have a trust is to ensure that assets are not unwittingly ‘exported’ into certain tax jurisdictions when you change your tax residency status.

If you want to set up a trust, then before you move to a particular country it is important to understand how a trust determines its residency status under the laws of that country.

In Australia, a trust is regarded as a tax resident of Australia if one of the trustees is a tax resident of Australia. 

However, in other jurisdictions, the concept of central management and control of the trust is used to determine the residency status of the trust.

It is important to work through all the residency aspects likely to impact your trust when you move around with an existing trust.

The key point to note is that it can be a useful exercise to transfer assets from an individual to a trust prior to changing residency and heading overseas. 

However, like most things, this strategy has its pros and cons.

Trusts Heading Overseas: Residency Determination

In the Australian context, where an individual trustee of an Australian trust changes residence, then, often, the trust will also change its residence.

In these cases, you need to make sure that when the trustee changes its residence, the tax consequences are identified.

Before you depart you need to consider whether it is beneficial to you and your family for the trust to stay a resident in your home country where it was established or if it makes sense for the trust to move with you to your new country.

If the immediate and ongoing tax consequences of keeping the trust in its particular form are not advantageous to you then we can discuss alternative strategies with you.

Such strategies may include replacing the trustee of the trust with a company that is domiciled in the jurisdiction to which you are moving and make the trust subject to the laws of that jurisdiction. 

In other situations, it may be more appropriate for a replacement trustee to be appointed in a third jurisdiction and have the trust reside in a 3rd country.

The purpose of the discussion here is to highlight the fact that planning for a departing trust is very important.

Our approach to this area is to recognise that trusts are long-term family vehicles, and just because a client may move to a new country, it does not mean that they should have to wind up their trust and forgo all the benefits that it has provided them.

Given our international tax and trust knowledge, we will be able to help our client make important decisions such as this.

Trusts Arriving Abroad

Moving around the world while being in control of trusts is complicated and should not be done lightly.

Arriving in another country with a trust and no plan is a recipe for disaster.

Where a new individual client has changed their residence and they are the trustee of a foreign trust, it is clear that this trust is also likely to become a resident of the arrival country.

In other cases, even if the client ceases being the trustee before they change their residence specific jurisdictions tax income on ‘pre-migration transfer of assets’ to foreign trusts. 

It is also likely that the trust deed may need a review as some of its definitions and terms may have no meaning in the new country the trust is being exported to.

Even if the trust is residing in a 3rd country, a review of the trust deed from the perspective of the laws of the new country is warranted.

Other concepts, which might be recognised abroad, such as ‘community title’, might be used in the trust deed, but these concepts might have no application in the arrival country.

The arriving trust may still have reporting obligations in the country in which it was established. 

It may also be the case that there are foreign protectors or other people who have an ongoing role in the management of the trust.

You should consider how they are affected in terms of reporting based on the country you are moving to.

This is particularly important if the arriving trust has a business or significant assets.

Often, the cost base of trust assets must be understood on the day the trust first enters a new country.

Usually this will be the market value of the assets on the day of the trust’s arrival, but not always.

While your move abroad is an exciting time for most people and full of challenges and new opportunities, considering the tax issues of how your trust would be affected by your move is essential.

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

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Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Contact us for tailored international tax advice
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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

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Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Contact Us

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Key tax issues you need to consider when arriving in a new country

John Marcarian   |   20 Feb 2023   |   3 min read

Similar to the need for you to plan your departing tax issues on the way out of your home country there is a major need to plan what your tax profile will be when you arrive in your new country. 

Sometimes, however, it is easy to assume that arriving in another country has no tax consequences and that can make things difficult.

A recent client example springs to mind.

David Smith (not his real name), an expat relocating from Singapore to the US (upon his retirement), decided to access his Australian superannuation fund.

What a mistake that was.

In Australia, pension payments for those over 60 years of age are tax free.

This is, however, not the case in the US.

David had worked out that he and his wife could afford to live in the US the way they envisaged, based on paying no US federal or state tax.

They were quite shocked when we told them that the US would tax David’s Australian-sourced pension stream.

It was not a great conversation.

Key Items To Consider

Set out below are some of the key things you need to consider ahead of your arrival:

  • Complying with the requirements of more than one tax jurisdiction (are tax credits available for any foreign tax paid?)
  • Accounting for a new tax and legal system (are you moving to a country that has a civil law regime or a common law regime?)
  • Understanding the tax issues associated with moving to the arrival country (does the country you are moving to have a general anti avoidance regime that targets tax planning?)
  • Considering how foreign assets are accounted for (is foreign income exempt or is it non-taxable there is a big difference between the two)
  • Locating other professional service providers to work with (do not assume your foreign tax advisor has international tax experience as this is often not the case)

How Will Your Assets Be Treated?

In some jurisdictions the moment you arrive in the country you are treated as having bought all your foreign assets at the market value of the date you became a tax resident.

This means that a ‘cost base’ has been established for your foreign assets.

Then when you sell those assets in future – a gain or loss can be worked out in relation to those assets. Australia is one such jurisdiction that treats your assets this way.

Other jurisdictions such as the US – do not give you this ‘step up’ in value.

This is a serious problem as you can end up paying a lot of tax to the Internal Revenue Service – based on the original cost of your assets which may have been many years ago.

This is grossly unfair, as most of any gain will have happened while you were a US non-resident – particularly if you sell the asset shortly after you arrive in the US (you may want to sell foreign assets to buy a house in the US for example!)

Your arrival must be carefully planned as the ramifications of an ill-prepared arrival can be costly. 

If you undertake a proper tax planning exercise before you leave, then the thrill of arriving in your new country is not shaken up by the bad news of unintended tax issues. 

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Corporate Residency

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Key tax issues you need to consider before (not after) you move abroad

John Marcarian   |   24 Jan 2023   |   4 min read

Moving abroad is one of the most challenging things that many of us will do.

My move to Singapore in March 2004 was a completely foreign experience in so many respects. There are so many logistical challenges to deal with that often tax planning is left until you arrive.

This of course is way too late.

This article covers some issues to address ahead of time.

Exit Taxes

An example of an issue that frequently arises is the issue of ‘exit tax’; that is, the act of leaving one country may trigger the deemed sale of all your assets held in your home country. 

Hence, it pays to know if the country you are leaving has an ‘exit tax’ as this can have quite serious consequences for you.

Tax Elections

It is also worth considering whether you can exercise any ‘tax elections’ as to how you may be able to obtain concessional tax treatment as you depart your home country.

For example, in Australia, one of the things to consider depending upon the particular asset, is whether you choose to be treated for tax purposes as ‘retaining some of your assets’.

Though you may move abroad, that does not mean that all your assets need to go with you.

Lodging an election to retain some of your assets for tax purposes in your home country, may give you a bit more flexibility as to the tax treatment available when you decide to sell them.

Creating a Trust in a 3rd Country

For a number of reasons, including tax planning, asset protection and risk mitigation, many people wish to hold their assets in a third country, through some type of trust.

Part of the planning you may choose to do before your move to a new country, is considering whether you should establish a pre migration trust in a 3rd country before you move to the country where you will work.

Often this will lead to a better tax outcome than ‘taking all your assets’ with you.

Many countries do not have tax regimes which tax foreign trusts, and therefore, income accumulating therein is not taxable in the country of your tax residence.

Tax Regime For Expats

In the planning phase of where you might go to work overseas, one important consideration is to consider whether the country you are moving to has a ‘concessional’ or ‘modified’ tax regime for expats.

Some countries, have particularly favourable tax regimes for expats.

As an example, some concessional tax regimes e.g., Japan, Belgium, Korea to name a few, may only tax expats on income arising in their country during the first five years of the expat’s tax residence in the country. 

These transitional rules are generally designed to provide an incentive to work in their country.

Other countries, such as the US, tax expats living in the US on passive income accruing in their home country structures.

Unique Residency Status

Another factor for you to consider when planning your move abroad, is the type of residency that you, the ‘departing expat’, will be taking up in your new country.

In some countries, there are unique residency statuses that can have different tax implications for you. 

An example of this includes the ‘temporary resident’ status in Australia.

This type of residence status imposes a different tax outcome as compared to general residence, and they can provide some additional flexibility in your tax position upon arrival.

Restructuring Your Existing Company or Trusts

It is vital to understand how your existing tax structures may have to be ‘restructured’ before you leave the country.

In some cases, a restructure may only involve changes to the office holders of a company or trustee of a trust.

For example, the residency of the trustee determines the residency status of a trust in Australia. 

If the intention is to keep the trust a tax resident of Australia, then this may be achieved simply with the resignation of the current trustee (the departing expat) and the appointment of another individual who will remain in Australia.

In other cases, it may be possible to issue or transfer shares to a family member to ensure that the company you have in your home country is not caught by the controlled foreign corporation rules when you arrive in your new country.

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Planning what happens with your Pension Fund or Superannuation when moving abroad should be a top priority

John Marcarian   |   27 Oct 2022   |   4 min read

Most expats moving overseas will have some form of pension or superannuation plan.

In my experience changing one’s tax residence does not of itself impact how that pension plan is treated in most jurisdictions. However, some particular complex jurisdictions, like the United States of America, have egregious tax laws that often cause unintended consequences for arriving expatriates.

A US Example

One of my clients moving to the US was adversely affected by the international tax rules of the US with respect to foreign pensions. My client, Peter, had built up a sizeable superannuation (pension fund) balance in Australia. It was the product of 30 years working in the film and entertainment business. Over the previous ten years, Peter had been a senior executive working for a chain of movie theatres in Singapore. As such, international tax had not crossed his mind much. Peter and his wife, Helen, had grandchildren living in Santa Monica.  They were keen to retire and enjoy the good life in a new location. Peter had calculated that he would be able to fund his future Santa Monica lifestyle through a combination of personal savings and by accessing his Australian pension. Everything was set.

Pension payments in Australia were tax free, so Peter thought that Uncle Sam would also not tax them. Unfortunately, that was not the case. In the US, such income streams are taxable if you are a US tax resident. We stopped Peter sending his pension to the US in the nick of time. We collapsed Peter’s Australian pension and enabled Peter to take his capital to the US and invest it in the US tax efficiently. Disaster averted.

This case study highlights why, in order to enjoy your pension, you must consider the impact of foreign tax laws when you are changing jurisdiction.

Countries have different rules

In delivering service to clients, we consider the impact of any overseas move on their home country pension. The underlying motivation for establishing a pension fund is typically based on a desire to save funds for retirement so that there is no reliance on government pensions. 

Thus, it means that having the maximum amount available in the pension plan that is not eroded by taxation, is a primary objective. It is folly to think that a tax-advantaged regime in one country with respect to pension funds will axiomatically apply in another country. That is rarely the case.

Moving your Pension Plan

We have extensive knowledge of the taxation issues relevant to pensions and superannuation. 

This enables us to assist clients with compliance and planning in relation to this important area of their lives. When expats leave their home country to move abroad, there are many aspects of tax that need to be considered prior to departure and pension fund planning is often a priority.

For those expats that have their pension fund in the UK, it may actually be worthwhile moving their pension with them. There are particular rules to address this. A Qualifying Recognised Overseas Pension Scheme (QROPS) is an overseas pension scheme that meets certain requirements set by Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC). A QROPS can receive transfers of UK pension benefits without incurring an unauthorised payment and scheme sanction charge.

In Australia, for example, pension funds are only considered to be complying under the governing legislation if they remain within the Australian tax jurisdiction. This means, that the trustee must remain an Australian resident. Therefore, in the case of an expat, relocation can inadvertently trigger a tax liability. Steps need to be taken prior to departure.

Complying in multiple countries

Similarly, many expats arrive in a new country with their home country pension fund in place.  Therefore, they must adhere to the rules in their home country and their arrival country in relation to this pension fund. One of the specialist skills we possess is in advising clients how foreign pension plans will be treated as they move around the globe. We can assist clients on QROPS and other similar regimes.

Moving abroad is an exciting time for most people. If you undertake proper planning with respect to your pension plan before you leave, then the thrill of arriving in your new country is not shaken up by the bad news that you have created unintended tax issues by leaving your home country in an unplanned way.

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Understanding the Differences Between Australian Citizenship, Visa Residency and Tax Residency

Daniel Wilkie   |   18 May 2021   |   10 min read

It can understandably be confusing to determine the difference between being an Australian tax resident for tax purposes compared to visa residency.

If you’re an Australian citizen who was born and continues living in Australia, then it’s pretty straightforward. You are an Australian for both citizenship and tax purposes.

But what about when things aren’t so clear? Can you be an Australian citizen but not an Australian tax resident? Can you be an Australian tax resident without being an Australian citizen? And what about Visa status? How does this change things?

Citizenship and visa residency are pretty clear cut. You are either a citizen or you aren’t. You either have an Australian residency visa, or you don’t. Tax residency, whilst linked to some degree to having visa residency or citizenship, is not as straightforward.

Australian Citizenship

You are an Australian citizen when Australia is legally your home country. This could be because you were born in Australia, or because you were born to Australian parents, or because you applied for citizenship. As an Australian citizen, Australia is considered to be your default country for all purposes, including taxation. This is why an Australian citizen may, in certain situations, continue to be treated as a tax resident, despite living in another country.

However, what about for those citizens from another country, living in Australia?

Australian Visa Residence 

People who are citizens of other countries are only permitted to stay in Australia per the terms of their Visa. There are many different types of visas, ranging from short-term holiday visas, through to permanent residency visas.

The type of visa you hold will play a part in your circumstances when determining tax residency. For instance, individuals on short-term visas are less likely to be considered Australian tax residents, while individuals on long-term or permanent residency visas are more likely to be considered Australian tax residents.

Australian Tax Residency

Despite what your citizenship and visa status is, tax residency is a matter of fact and intention. There is no application form to be completed nor automatic rule to become a tax resident.

When considering whether you are an Australian tax resident the primary factor is whether you, the individual, is living in Australia (see the “resides test” below). Conversely, you may be a foreign resident for tax purposes if you live outside of Australia. Living in Australia is distinguished between having a holiday in Australia, or staying in Australia for an extended period, whether temporary or permanent.

To help distinguish “permanency”, an individual must typically be living in Australia for at least six months to be considered a tax resident. Conversely, Australian citizens who are living overseas are typically still considered to be Australian tax residents if they are living overseas for less than 2 years. Indeed an Australian citizen may be living overseas for up to 5 years and continue to be considered an Australian tax resident if there are sufficient ties remaining in Australia to demonstrate that the nature of their overseas stay is “temporary”.

In order to determine tax residency specific residency tests are considered.

Tests for Australian Residency

To determine whether an individual is a tax resident there are a number of tests that can be applied. Passing any one of these tests will determine residency status.

             Resides Test

The first test for residency is the ‘resides test’. If you are physically present in Australia, intending to live here on a permanent basis, and have all the usual attachments in Australia that one would expect of someone living here, then you are a tax resident.

Factors considered include whether your family lives in Australia with you, where your business and employment ties are, where you hold most of your assets and what your social and living arrangements are. If you pass this test then there is no need to consider further tests. 

It is possible to be found to be a resident of more than one country. In cases where you are found to be a dual resident, you may need to consider tie breaker rules in any relevant Double Tax Agreement. 

If you don’t pass the resides test then you may still be a tax resident if you satisfy one of the three statutory tests instead.

             Domicile Test

The domicile test states that you will be found to be an Australian tax resident unless you have a permanent home elsewhere. An Australian citizen will have Australia as their domicile by origin. This means that even if an Australian citizen is living or travelling overseas their default home will be Australia. 

In such situations residency only changes when there is an intention to permanently set up a new domicile overseas. (For this reason people holidaying overseas or living overseas on a short-term basis can continue to be Australian tax residents even if they don’t step foot in Australia for years). Individuals who were domiciled in Australia but who do not cut their connection with Australia, will continue to be Australian residents.

             183-Day Test

The ‘183 day test’ is the day count test. This test is typically to capture foreign residents coming to Australia, rather than applying to Australians moving overseas. Individuals who come to Australia from overseas for at least 183 days may find themselves being Australian tax residents. Note that being in Australia for 183 days of the year does not automatically make such an individual a tax resident. Non residents who come to Australia for more than 183 days but do not have any intention of taking up residence in Australia may, depending on their intent and actions, be considered visitors or holiday makers, and therefore not qualify as tax residents.

             The Commonwealth Superannuation Test

Australian Government employees in CSS or PSS schemes, who work in Australian posts overseas, will be considered Australian residents regardless of other factors. 

Examples of Tax Residency and Foreign Tax Residency

To understand the difference it might help to look at a few examples of different scenarios.

             An Australian Citizen who is a Tax Resident

Tom is an Australian citizen who was born in Australia. He has lived in Australia his whole life, and intends to continue living here. During the year he goes on a 6 month holiday, travelling around Europe. At the end of his 6 months he decides to take advantage of another opportunity and stays in Africa for 3 months. After this time, he returns home to Australia. 

Tom’s tax residency never changes. Despite travelling overseas for 9 months of the year, he continues to be an Australian resident for tax purposes. This is because Australia is always his home, and his time overseas is not in the nature of a permanent move.

             An Australian Citizen who is not a Tax Resident

Jill is an Australian citizen who was born in Australia. She has lived in Australia for her whole life. However, in 2019 Jill accepts an opportunity to take a job in England. The position is a permanent position and requires Jill to move to England on a permanent basis. After acquiring the necessary visa to work and live in England, she sells her home and uses the proceeds to make the move to England, where she buys a new home and settles down. Jill brings her son to England with her, and closes down her Australian bank accounts. She does not expect to return to Australia, other than for occasional holidays.

On the day that Jill departs Australia she becomes a foreign resident for tax purposes. The fact that she is an Australian citizen does not change this. This is because it is clear from her actions and intentions, closing off ties to Australia, and establishing a new home in England,  that she is moving to England on a permanent basis. 

             A Tax Resident Living in Australia on a Permanent Residency Visa

Bob is from the United States of America. While in Australia on a working holiday visa, where he travels around the country, his final stop is at a small country town that feels like home to him. He makes friends and is even offered a permanent job there. Bob’s visa is almost up, so he goes back to the United States as planned, then takes the necessary steps to return to Australia and apply for a permanent residency visa. Bob effectively cuts his ties with the US and intends to make this small country town his new home and moves into a room with one of his new mates.

On Bob’s initial time in Australia under his working holiday visa, he will be considered a non-resident, or a temporary resident, depending on his visa. Even though he started thinking about making a permanent move at this stage, he had yet to take any steps to show this intention. However, on his return, which was made with all the actions necessary to show that this was a permanent move to Australia, he then becomes an Australian tax resident. 

             A Foreign Tax Resident with an Australian Permanent Residency Visa

Jane is a British citizen who has been living in Australia on a permanent residency visa for the past ten years. She just received news that her parents were in a bad accident and both need permanent care. Jane decides to pack up and move back home to care for her parents. She sells off her assets, closes her Australian bank account, and returns home to live with her parents. She also finds a part time job overseas.

Even though Jane has a permanent residency visa in Australia, she is no longer living here on a permanent basis. This means she is now a foreign resident for tax purposes.

Permanent and Temporary Residents

Even if an individual is deemed to be a tax resident, the ATO further distinguishes between temporary residency and permanent residency. Temporary residency typically occurs when an individual is genuinely residing in Australia on a “permanent” basis, however, are only in Australia on a temporary Visa, as opposed to living in Australia on a permanent residency Visa or obtaining Australian citizenship.

Temporary residents are only taxed on their Australian-sourced income.

Tax Residency is based on your Permanent Residence

As you can see from the above examples, tax residency is based on where an individual is permanently residing. If you are in Australia on a holiday, or only for a short time (less than 6 months), then you would not be considered an Australian resident for tax purposes.

However, holding a permanent residency visa, does not necessarily mean you are a tax resident. If you actually live in another country on a permanent basis, having your social and economic ties in another country, then you will be a foreign resident for tax purposes. 

It is important to note that there must be a permanent home elsewhere. If an Australian resident decided to travel the world for several years, although they may think they have departed Australia permanently, as they do not have a permanent home elsewhere, this would not constitute a decision to permanently reside in another country. Australia would continue to be their home, even though they are absent from Australia for a prolonged period of time. 

Since determining tax residency can be quite complex, it is important to speak to a tax specialist to understand your situation.

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Corporate Residency

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Name is required.

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

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by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Tax obligations of expats living in Australia on a “Distinguished Talent Visa”

Daniel Wilkie   |   23 Apr 2021   |   5 min read

There are many pathways that you can take when coming to live in Australia on a permanent basis. The “Distinguished Talent Visa”, subclass 858, is one of them. This Visa allows you to stay in Australia on a permanent basis, and permits you to work and study in Australia.

As an individual living in Australia on a “Distinguished Talent Visa”, you need to be aware of your tax obligations. Below we outline the most common questions clients on the “Distinguished Talent Visa” want to know.

Is a person living in Australia on the Distinguished Talent Visa an Australian tax resident?

An individual living in Australia on a Distinguished Talent Visa is most likely an Australian tax resident. 

This visa allows you to live in Australia on a permanent basis. If you choose to live in Australia on a permanent basis and take actions to make this move, then you would be considered to be an Australian tax resident. 

However, if you simply use the visa to stay in Australia on a short term basis while continuing to live in your usual country of residence, then you would remain a foreign resident for tax purposes. 

This means that the Visa itself is not evidence of tax residency, however it is a pathway that could allow you to become an Australian permanent resident, and accordingly, an Australian tax resident. You would still need to actually move to Australia and begin residing here.

If your intentions and living situation changes whilst in Australia, your tax residency status can also change. 

What are the tax implications of moving to Australia on a Distinguished Talent Visa?

Assuming you are coming to Australia on a permanent basis, then moving to Australia on a Distinguished Talent Visa will mean you become a temporary Australian tax resident. This will mean that in Australia you may: 

  • be taxed on your worldwide income, including income that comes from your former home country
  • need to obtain market valuations on any overseas assets you own in order to establish their cost base for capital gains purposes
  • Be required to consider any double taxation issues with the country that you are departing from
  • As a temporary resident you will not be subject to capital gains tax on property you hold overseas.

Since the Distinguished Talent Visa alone is not sufficient to confirm that you are becoming an Australian resident, it is important that you get your residency assessed and obtain adequate tax advice for your specific circumstances. 

Should I sell my assets prior to moving to Australia?

Whether or not you sell your property and investments prior to moving to Australia is a personal decision that you should make based on your investment and financial needs and goals. You should always take financial advice from a qualified financial advisor.

From a tax perspective, you will only need to declare capital gains from the sale of your overseas assets if you become a resident and are not also a Temporary Resident before you sell them. 

In this situation your assets are valued and taken to have been acquired at the time that you become a resident and are not still a Temporary Resident.

Assets that are subject to capital gains tax will be eligible for a 50% discount on the amount that is assessed, once they have been held for at least 12 months.

Getting adequate advice on the tax consequences of choosing when to sell your assets is something that should be done as soon as possible, so that you are able to make more informed decisions.

What happens with the taxes I am required to pay in my home country?

After moving to Australia on a permanent basis it is possible that you will still be required to pay income tax in your former country of residence. 

If there is a Double Tax Agreement (DTA) between Australia and your former country of residence, then the DTA will contain provisions that minimise the potential of being taxed twice on the same income. 

DTAs can minimise the amount of foreign tax that is paid on investment income such as interest. They also include tie breakers for situations where you are deemed to be a resident of both countries. 

Paying Tax in Australia

Whether you are a permanent resident, a temporary resident, or a non resident of Australia, you will be required to lodge an Australian tax return on an annual basis while earning income in Australia. 

Non residents are only required to include income that is sourced from Australia. 

Permanent residents are required to include income from worldwide sources.

Under the Australian tax system your employer withholds some tax from your pay, known as PAYGW (pay as you go withholding). The PAYGW is remitted to the ATO who then offset this against your assessed tax liability for the year. Any excess PAYGW is refunded at this time, or a notice of payment is issued where you owe additional tax. 

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Determining Corporate Residency

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Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

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Key tax differences between a Permanent Resident and Temporary Resident

Daniel Wilkie   |   20 Aug 2020   |   4 min read

The rules around tax residency are largely different to the rules around social security, visa residency, as well as citizenship.

Australian Tax Resident

In Australia, for tax purposes, an individual is an Australian resident if they satisfy one of the residency tests. 

However, those people from outside of Australia may not realise that establishing that you are an Australian tax resident is not the end of the story. An Australian tax resident may be a permanent resident or a temporary resident, with different tax implications.

Temporary Australian Tax Resident

A temporary Australian tax resident is an Australian resident who:

  • Holds a temporary visa under the Migration Act 1958
  • Is not an Australian resident according to the Social Security Act 1991
  • Does not have a spouse who is an Australian resident within the meaning of the Social Security Act 1991

The Social Security Act 1991 defines an ‘Australian resident’ as a person who resides in Australia and is an Australian citizen, holder of a permanent visa or a protected special category visa holder.

As you can see this is different to the tax definition of Australian tax resident.

Temporary residents may be considered an Australian tax resident due to a “permanence” in their intention and action of residing in Australia, however, they may not be legally allowed to permanently reside in Australia based on their Visa, which means they will likely return to their home country.

(NZ citizens are a special case, where they can remain in Australia without applying for permanent residency, but are still considered Temporary Residents based on the “Special Category Visas” issued to them upon entry to Australia.)

The Difference Between a Temporary Resident and a Permanent Resident for Tax Purposes

All Australian residents are taxed on their Australian and worldwide income, including any capital gains on foreign property held.

Foreign residents are taxed only on their Australian sourced income.

Permanent Australian residents are treated the same as an Australian resident, and taxed on both Australian and worldwide income.

Temporary residents are taxed on their Australian-sourced income only. They are taxed at resident marginal tax rates, however, they do not pay tax in Australia on their foreign-sourced income.

Foreign residents and temporary residents are subject to capital gains tax (CGT) if a CGT event happens to a CGT asset that is taxable Australian property. They are not subject to CGT in Australia on their foreign owned taxable property for CGT purposes. This ensures, for example, that they can reside in Australia on a temporary basis without having to worry about the CGT consequences of a home they maintain back in the country in which they permanently live and are likely to eventually return to.

Taxable Australian Property

‘Taxable Australian property’ are capital assets that include real property situated in Australia, mining rights in Australia, assets of a business located in Australia, and indirect interest in Australian real property through an entity that you hold 10% or more controlling interest in (where such interest is primarily associated with ownership of the Australian real property).

This also includes options over any of the above.

Individuals are taxed on any taxable Australian property, regardless of their residency status.

Overview of Different Tax Treatment


Non-ResidentTemporary ResidentPermanent Resident
Taxed on overseas incomeNONOYES  
Taxed on Australian sourced IncomeYESYESYES   
CGT on taxable Australian propertyYESYESYES
CGT on foreign taxable propertyNONOYES
Entitled to claim CGT main residence exemption on Australian main residence       
NO
              
YES

YES           

Note that a temporary resident’s visa status may change, and they may find that they become a permanent resident, or Australian resident. If a temporary resident becomes a permanent resident, then they are deemed to have acquired any assets (other than taxable Australian property) at their market value on the date that they ceased being a temporary resident and became a permanent resident. Once an individual has become a permanent resident, simply departing Australia, even for more than six months, may not be enough to change their status to a non-resident.

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Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Contact Us

"*" indicates required fields

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The Road to Oz

CST    |   8 Feb 2019   |   1 min read

Our Principal, Mathew Marcarian, together with our Managing Director in Singapore, Boon Tan, were recently featured in the STEP Journal* (a publication produced by STEP for its members) discussing the local taxation laws that apply to Trust beneficiaries relocating to Australia.

STEP is an organisation that focuses on improving the public understanding of the issues families face in relation to inheritance and succession planning.

Read the full article.

* Matthew Marcarian and Boon Tan, ‘The road to Oz’, STEP Journal (Vol27 Iss1), pp.41-43

NEED ASSISTANCE FOR YOUR SITUATION?

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Do you need tax services in our other regions?
By providing us your information you agree to our privacy policy

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Corporate Residency

Please provide your details to access the online tool

Name is required.

Email is required.

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Place of
Incorporation

Is the company incorporated outside Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Central Management
and Control

Is the Central Management and Control
of the company exercised in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Carry on a Business

Does the company carry on a business in Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Voting Power

Is the company's voting power controlled
by shareholders who are residents of Australia?

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is an Australian Resident

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

The company is not a resident
but it could be a CFC

Contact us for tailored international tax advice
regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact us for tailored international tax advice regarding your client's specific situation.

Contact Us

Determining Corporate Residency

Use our online tool to determine the corporate residency of your client's business.

Contact Us

"*" indicates required fields

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